Visiting your general physician is always a good idea if you are the prey of frequent foot blisters that are infectious and painful. Blisters occurring due to chemical reactions or other substances also require proper and intense care.
Precautionary treatment for blood blister on foot is better than treatment that a person undergoes after his/her foot blisters have popped and reached their severity. It will surely save you from the unbearable pain which foot blisters can cause sometimes. Each treatment will vary with the severity of each condition; hence it is necessary to rely on an expert’s opinion rather than trying out every antibiotic.
Early treatment, on the other hand, doesn’t require an expert’s opinion and you can start treating a foot blister as soon as you feel it emerging. Early detection and taking care accordingly is a key to prevent from pain of a mature blister. As soon as you feel an itch and feel a blister, here is what you should do:
- Take off your shoes and your socks if you are wearing any, and wash your feet with cold water. Make sure that no particles of sand or gravel are stuck on your feet.
- Let your feet dry and cool down. Avoid using a towel, but if you decide to use one, then dabbing is going to be a better option than scrubbing the affected area.
- Cover the affected area with either a surgical tape or a band aid. However, it is best to wrap it with the special blister moleskin which you can easily purchase from a drugstore.
- Remove the band aid or moleskin before hitting the sack, and let your skin breathe and re-grow during the night. If you do not notice any improvement the next day, head to your physician without any delay. Closely judge the improvement, and if the irritation is under control, you may repeat the same procedure and hope for improvement before the next dawn breaks.
If your blister is puss-filled, reddish and painful and you assume it is a blood blister or an infected blister, don’t waste time as it could require an intense foot blister treatment. Such treatments involve sterilized needles and expert hands to pierce the foot blisters and pump out the fluid. Puncturing this can rupture the skin around the blister, therefore the expert will be required to carefully cut and clean the underlying new skin with the help of alcohol or a suitable antibiotic. This procedure can be followed with moleskin dressing to keep the affected area clean.
The staph infection is caused by the bacterium named Staphylococcus aurous, people usually get this infection and the common case is staph infection in nose or other skin. It belongs to a group of bacteria called Staphylococcus. Amongst the group of 30 Staphylococci it is mostly the Staphylococcus aurous which causes infections in humans such as boils, impetigo, food poisoning, cellulitis, toxic shock syndrome, scalded skin syndrome and mastitis.
Such infections can affect almost anyone but there are some people who are vulnerable to this bacterial infection. Such people include:
- Lactating women
- Newly born babies
- People suffering from chronic ailments such as diabetes, vascular disease, cancer, lung problems, intravenous catheters and surgical incisions.
- People who suffer from a weak immune system.
The staph bacteria may be present in the nasal chambers, groin and the rectum of healthy people too. This bacterial colonization is harmless and does not create any health problems. However, in certain cases the skin, which is resistant to such germs gets ruptured by cuts, abrasions, bruises etc. This gives a byway to the prowling bacteria which need a breeding ground. Once they enter into the skin they get favorable conditions for multiplying and start an infection.
The cause of staph infection:
- Eating food which has been contaminated with toxins produced by the bacterium, Staphylococcus aurous.
- Not keeping a safe distance with those people who have been infected by the staph bacteria.
- Not using low- absorbency tampons during menstruation by women and not changing them frequently.
- Not taking adequate care to prepare and handle food with clean hands.
- Keeping cuts and wounds open and not disinfecting them with an anti-bacterial lotion.
- Not keeping ones facial skin well scrubbed.
- Sitting for prolonged hours without taking a break in between.
- Wearing skin fitted cloth and fabrics which do not absorb sweat.
- Not taking a well balanced diet. Without the required vitamins and minerals the body’s immune system gets weakened.
- Living in unhygienic and crowded conditions.
- Cutting hair too close to the skin which results in ingrown hair which brings about a staph infection.
- Exposing one’s skin to dust and dirt.
- Using perfumed soaps instead of an anti-bacterial one.
The causes of staph infections which bring about drastic consequences are as follows:
- Biting of lips with a boil nearby.
- Squeezing of boils can spread the infection internally to some organ or the blood.
- Not paying heed to the boil which shows no signs of recovery even after a couple of weeks.
- Not getting a bacterial culture done to ascertain who the carrier of the staph bacteria is, in case the infection spreads within a family. Lack of proper diagnosis and timely treatment can have serious consequences.
The Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aurous, better known as MRSA, is a type of bacterium that is resistant to the antibiotic methicillin and some other drugs in this category. The diagnosis of this MRSA is necessary to control the spread of the infection. Once the tests determine the severity of the MRSA infection, the most suitable antibiotic treatment is given to the patients. MRSA infections can be treated with topical, oral, or intravenous antibiotics, depending upon the severity of infection.
Diarrhea is loose, watery stools; an individual with diarrhea characteristically passes stool more than three times a day or having more stools than is typical for that particular person.
People with green diarrhea may pass more than a quart of stool a day. Episodes may be acute and short-lived, intermittent or recurrent, or, in a number of instances, chronic and also severe.
Acute diarrhea is a common condition that normally lasts 1 or 2 days and will go away on its own without having special treatment.
Prolonged diarrhea persisting for more than two days could possibly be an indication of a more significant problem and presents the danger of dehydration. Chronic diarrhea may be an attribute of a chronic disease.
Diarrhea can result in dehydration, which means the body does not have enough fluid to function appropriately. Dehydration is in particular dangerous in young children and older people, and it must be cared for quickly to prevent serious health issues.
Individuals of all age groups can get diarrhea and the typical adult has a bout of acute diarrhea about 4 instances a yr. In the United States, each child will have had 7 to 15 episodes of diarrhea by the age 5.
In the event that green diarrhea is persistent, it can result in inadequate nutrition, dehydration, and weight-loss. In kids, in particular younger children, diarrhea can rapidly lead to dehydration.
Signs And Symptoms Associated With Diarrhea May Include Things Like:
- Recurrent, loose, watery stools
- Abdominal cramping pains
- Abdominal ache
- A fever
- Blood in the stool
- Crampy discomfort in the abdomen, the area between the chest and the hips
- Inflammation in the abdomen
- A unpleasant feeling around the anus
- A immediate need to have a bowel movement
- A inability to manage their bowels (fecal incontinence)
Additionally, other signs and symptoms such as nausea and/or vomiting may precede diarrhea that is brought on by, for instance, an infection. Bacterial or parasitic infections at times result in bloody stools, and a fever may accompany these types of infections as well.
If You Are An Adult, See Your Physician If:
- Your diarrhea persists beyond three days
- You become dehydrated, as evidenced by extreme thirst, dry mouth or skin, little or no urination, severe weakness, dizziness or lightheadedness, or dark-colored urine
- You have severe abdominal or rectal pain
- You have bloody or black colored stools
- You have a high temperature of more than 102 F (39 C), or signs of dehydration despite drinking plenty of liquids
Contact Your Physician If Your Child’s Diarrhea Does Not Get Better Within 24 Hours Or If You’re Baby:
- Has not had a wet diaper in 3 or more hours
- Has a fever of more than 102 F (39 C)
- Has bloody or black colored stools
- Has a dry mouth or cries with no tears
- Is abnormally sleepy, drowsy, unresponsive or moody
- Has a gaunt look to the abdomen, eyes or cheeks
- Has skin that doesn’t flatten if pinched and released
If the champagne will be flowing at your New Year’s Eve bash, are you prepared for a guest who has too much to drink?
Being a good host used to mean merely making sure your guests had enough to eat and drink and had a good time. Today it means being a responsible host and, in some cases, a liable one. Many states have social host liability laws, under which a party holder can be held legally liable if a guest becomes drunk, gets behind the wheel and injures someone.
New Year’s is often the most deadly drunk-driving holiday of the year. During the past two New Year’s holidays, 63 percent of all highway deaths were alcohol-related, according to Mothers Against Drunk Drivers (MADD).
If you’re having a New Year’s party, MADD recommends you serve nonalcoholic drinks for those who prefer not to drink alcoholic ones and you have plenty of food on hand so guests won’t drink on empty stomachs. Also, consider having someone serve as bartender to better monitor guests’ liquor consumption.
Also, MADD recommends asking guests to appoint a designated driver before the evening begins to make sure those who are driving won’t be drinking at the party.
But what happens when a guest becomes drunk, despite your best intentions? There is no way to sober someone up quickly. It takes about one hour for the body to metabolize each drink, according to MADD. Drinking black coffee won’t sober someone up, but it is a good idea to serve a snack with some nonalcoholic beverage before guests leave. The food and time required to eat can help reduce the effects of alcohol.
Whatever you do – whether it is allowing the intoxicated guest to sleep it off until sober enough to drive home safely, asking someone else to drive or hiring a taxi – do not let your guest drive drunk.
Sometimes that isn’t so easy if your guest insists he’s OK to drive. The U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and The Advertising Council’s Innocent Victims public service campaign offer some helpful tips and advice on how hosts can get the keys away from a drunk driver:
- If it is a close friend, try and use a soft, understated approach at first. Suggest to your friend that he or she has had too much to drink and it would be better if someone else drove or to take a cab.
- Be calm. Joke about it. Make light of it.
- Try to make it sound like you are doing your friend a favor.
- If it is somebody you don’t know well, speak to the friends and have them make an attempt to persuade the guest to hand over the keys. Usually, the individual will listen.
- If it’s a good friend, spouse or significant other, tell that person that if he or she insists on driving, you are not coming along. Suggest that you will call someone else for a ride, take a cab or walk home.
- Find your friend’s or spouse’s keys while he or she is preoccupied, and take them away. Most likely, your guest will think the keys are lost and will be forced to find another mode of transportation.
- If possible, avoid embarrassing the person or being confrontational, particularly when dealing with men. This makes them appear vulnerable to alcohol and its effects.
The National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information provides an online guide for helping men and women know their drinking limits. In 1999, Texas became the 17th state to strengthen the legal definition of drunk driving from 0.10 blood alcohol content to 0.08.
Work has been hard, but you can manage it. Suddenly one day you are short of breath or your chest is tight. You need to break more frequently. You-and your coworkers-notice that you are no longer whistling while you work. You are wheezing. You go to the doctor and find out you have asthma.
You are not alone. About 11 million workers in the United States are exposed daily to airborne agents that can cause asthma. As many as 600,000 people in the United States have work-related asthma.
There are two types of occupational asthma. Irritant-induced asthma occurs abruptly after exposure. Immunological asthma, on the other hand, occurs after long-term sensitization. Asthmatics tend to get irritant-induced asthma, while non-asthmatics tend to develop respiratory difficulty after years of exposure.
Occupational asthma is most common in industries with high levels of airborne particles, even where exposure protection is provided.
In fact, the problem of work-related asthma often occurs in settings where both the employer and employees make every effort to keep respiratory hazards to a minimum. Thus, wheezing or other asthma-related symptoms come on unexpectedly, requiring some investigation after the obvious (a spill or other accident) is ruled out.
High-risk industries include working in plastics, metals and baked goods, and milling, farming, grain elevator operation and laboratory work.
Whether you already have asthma or not, something can be done for wheezing at work. Labored breathing is not in your job description. Consider these possibilities:
- Job change within the same factory. You may be working in a different part of the manufacturing plant where exposures or levels of exposures to certain particles are higher than your prior location.
- Different threshold. The upper limit for you to develop reactive airways (asthma) may be lower than someone else. This is true even among asthmatics as well as with people who have never wheezed in their life.
- Watch your technique. If you are starting a new task, particularly in a job where a lot of dust is kicked up, get training, or a refresher course, on how to minimize exposure to dusts.
- Check your equipment. Make sure the respirator or other protective gear and clothing are all up to date and functioning properly.
Whether your asthma is getting worse or you are wheezing for the first time, do not delay seeing a doctor. Even if the cause is not determined, and even if you are fine the next day, you need to be seen, properly diagnosed and treated. Wheezing, even minor, is a serious symptom. There is no such thing as “a touch of asthma.” A little annoying cough today may turn into a life-threatening asthma attack tomorrow.
Lymph is a clear, colorless fluid that bathes the body cells. Lymph is constantly being formed from the fluid part of the blood. This fluid part passes out through the capillary walls as blood flows through the capiDaries. Large elements, such as cells and proteins, cannot get through the walls and remain in the blood. Lymph is therefore similar in composition to blood, except that it has no red blood cells or platelets and contains considerably less protein than blood.
Lymph brings nutrients and oxygen to body cells and carries away wastes. After picking up wastes from the cells, some of the lymph passes directly back into the blood through the capillary walls. The rest of the lymph remains in the tissues, eventually returning to the bloodstream through the lymphatic system.
The lymphatic system spreads in a network throughout the body. It consists of a series of vessels, called lymphatics, that run together like streams flowing into a river, becoming progressively larger and larger. The smallest lymphatics, called lymph capillaries, lie next to the blood capillaries. Because the lymph capillaries have extremely thin walls, lymph, together with large particles of waste matter, can easily enter. The lymph then drains through the lymphatics until it reaches the largest vessels, the lymph ducts. There are two lymph ducts: the right lymphatic duct and the thoracic duct. They empty the lymph into large veins in the neck.
Along the course of the lymphatics are accumulations of lymphatic tissue, called lymph nodes or lymph glands. Lymph nodes act as filters and remove abnormal material, microorganisms, and harmful substances from the lymph. They also produce lymphocytes, one of the kinds of white blood cells. Numerous lymph nodes can be felt in the neck, under the jaw, in the armpits, and in the groin. In the course of an infection the lymph nodes often become enlarged and tender.
Phrenology is a pseudo-science that relates the mental and temperamental characteristics of an individual to the bumps and hollows of his skull.
The idea originated with the work of Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828), a German physician, who pointed out, quite correctly, that the gray matter of the brain is the active and essential part and that the white matter is supporting tissue. Gall also thought that the shape of the brain is related to mental capacity and that different parts of the brain are involved with different parts of the body. Many of these ideas proved true, and neurologists map certain parts of the brain. Gall however, also thought that abstract qualities and tendencies, such as pride, courage, greed, firmness, and artistic talent, have specific localizations in the brain, and that is where he erred. He believed that an enlargement of a particular portion of the brain shows that there is an excess of the property associated with that portion and—worst of all—that an enlarged portion of the brain causes a bump in the skull at that place.
Gall’s vague suggestions were systematized by his disciple Johann Caspar Spurzheim (1776-1832), who was the real founder of phrenology. The “science” spread rapidly in France, Britain, and the United States and fascinated men and women who were ready to believe that amazing insights into an individual’s personality could be gained by fingering the skull. Phrenological heads in ivory and enlarged drawings with portions of the skull marked off and labeled offered laymen the chance to read skulls and were common objects into the early 20th century. Andrew Combe, who published the Phrenological Journal in Edinburgh until his death in 1847, represented phrenology at its height.
In the later decades of the 19th century, increased knowledge about the nervous system and the brain revealed that Gall’s original theories were without scientific foundation, and phrenology quickly lost any standing it may have had among scientists. It remained popular for a while as a kind of sideshow attraction, like fortune-telling, and it is now of historical interest only.
Herpes virus is any of several related viruses that cause diseases in humans and animals,
Among these viruses are Herpes zoster, which produces shingles; varicella, which causes chicken pox in children; and herpes simplex. Simplex is responsible for a wide variety of illnesses, including cold sores, fever blisters and other skin eruptions, infections of internal organs, and tumors among lower animals and probably in man.
An outstanding characteristic of herpes viruses is their abilIty to remain latent in the body, often within nerve cells, without causing noticeable symptoms. The virus may enter the latent stage by integrating its genes with those of the host cell. In this way it may escape destruction by antibodies formed against it. After a latency period that may last for years, the virus-possibly triggered by physical or emotional stress- may cause an outbreak of disease. In some cases a single initial infection may cause repeated outbreaks of the disease during the course of the patient’s life.
A prime example of the repeating kind of herpes virus is simplex, of which there are two types: 1 and 2. Simplex 1 often attacks the face, eyes, and mouth. Simplex 2 primarily affects the genital organs, causing almost as much suffering as the other venereal diseases, gonorrhea and syphilis. Either type, however, can infect any region of the body.
When a simplex infection first occurs, it appears in the form of blisters, such as fever blisters or cold sores, which form scabs and heal over within 3 to 14 days. In infants who have not yet developed their own antibodies to the virus, the entire skin may break out in a heavy but nonscarring rash. Serious complications, even death, may follow if simplex also attacks the infant’s internal organs. There is no generally accepted cure for infections by herpes viruses, although antibiotics are sometimes given to prevent secondary infection of afflicted parts by bacteria.
Herpes viruses are known to cause cancers in several animals. In man, simplex 2 may be the agent of cervical and prostatic tumors. Burkitt’s lymphoma of the jaw is probably caused by another herpes virus.
A Cesarean Section is the delivery of a baby through an incision in the mother’s abdomen. The name is apparently derived from an ancient Roman law, Lex caesarea, requiring dying women to be operated on in the last weeks of pregnancy in an effort to save the child- and not, as commonly believed, from the method of Julius Caesar’s birth.
A cesarean section is usually performed because the mother’s pelvis is too small to allow the baby’s head to pass through it, as would occur during normal delivery. Although a cesarean section may be performed before the mother’s labor pains begin, it is more often done after she has had pain for several hours and it has been shown that the baby’s head cannot descend. This waiting period is known as a “test of labor.” Other reasons for performing a cesarean section include severe hemorrhaging from the uterus, an abnormal positioning of the baby, or high blood pressure or diabetes in the mother.
There is great controversy among doctors about how to deliver subsequent babies after a woman’s first child has been delivered by cesarean section. If the reason for the first operation was a too-small pelvis, then all later deliveries of normal-sized babies must be by cesarean. But many doctors give a test of labor after a woman has had a cesarean for reasons other than a too-small pelvis. The chief danger of a test of labor under these conditions is the possibility of a ruptured uterus. Although this danger is slight for the mother, it may be serious for the baby.
In choosing the appropriate time to perform the second cesarean section, it is important to make sure that the baby is developed enough to survive after birth. This may be determined through X rays, but it is considered best to wait for labor pains to begin or for the membranes surrounding the baby to break spontaneously. At that time the physician may decide to have a test of labor or to perform the cesarean. If the delivery promises to be easy, the baby should be permitted to come through the natural passages.
A boil is a localized inflammation in the skin commencing in a hair root. It is actually caused by a germ called the staphylococcus, but the occurrence of the boil implies a lowered vitality on the part of the skin, for these germs are constantly found in the healthy skin where they are harmless. People whose health is debilitated by diabetes, chronic kidney disease and gout are very prone to this affection, and it is also common in the ill-fed (including the underfed and the overfed), in those suffering from chronic intestinal self-poisoning, in excessive meat-eaters and in the physically or mentally exhausted. Most often, there is a combination of these factors at work. During war soldiers frequently suffer from boils owing to the exhausting conditions of life and the often inadequate diet. Friction, by irritating the hair roots, also plays an important part, thus explaining why boils are so common on the back of the neck (owing to hard, tight collars), on the forearms and the buttocks in sedentary workers.
Treatment of Boils
Intramuscular injections of penicillin have proved to be most efficacious in the treatment of boils, especially where the boils are “in crops”. For local treatment, apply frequent moist hot antiseptic dressings, such as boric lint. When the boil “points”, i.e. when the pus or matter shows through the skin, a small incision should be made with a sterilized needle to help the pus to escape.
How are boils to be prevented? In the first place it is essential that the sufferer should make sure that there is no specific underlying disease, such as diabetes. Excluding this possibility, a vigorous attempt must be made to build up the general health—not only by tonic medicines but by natural means. The diet must be studied. Protein should be taken in the minimal quantities necessary for life and in the form of eggs, milk, cheese and fish, rather than butcher’s meat. It is imperative that the intestinal function should be in perfect order, and this can be achieved by eating abundance of raw fruits, vegetables and whole-meal products. Large quantities of water should be taken between meals and a glass last thing at night and first thing in the morning.
Skin hygiene is equally important. Thorough cleanliness must be observed, and frequent baths (alternating hot and cold) are advisable to tone up the skin. Exposure to fresh air and sunlight and to ultra-violet rays artificially produced are beneficial. A vaccine preparation from the sufferer’s own boils injected at regular intervals lessens the liability to boils in stubborn cases.